“Character Rig” refers to the data to set up on a character to manipulate it.
It is specifically a collective term of bones (skeleton), joints, weights (degree of influence of bones on the skin), interface and so on.
“Collider” is a collective term of the mechanism of detecting a collision.
Collision between colliders can be detected by setting a collider on an object, ground, wall and so on.
There are various shapes of colliders: sphere, capsule, box (regular hexahedron, rectangular parallelepiped), cylinder, and etc., which you can change according to the object to interact with.
“Collision” is a term used in referring to “collision detection”.
The game’s basic structure is defined as detecting the collision of two objects or of an object and terrain in game, and setting behavior accordingly.
“Component” is a collective term for program functions.
In Unity, Component is classified into Mesh, Effects, Physics, Navigation, Audio, Rendering, Scripts, and so on. From the Inspector view, you can adjust the details of Component contained in each objects.
“Coroutine” is a function that has the ability to pause and restart the execution of a program.
Normally, when a function is called in the middle of program, it runs to completion. With the function of Coroutine, however, it is possible to pause and restart the execution again.